Compare the Best Golden Visa Programs

  Cyprus Greece Malta Portugal Montenegro UAE Thailand Georgia
Overview Best for Financial Optimization Best Value for Program Costs Cheapest Option for Full Family Most Diverse Range of Options Fastest Citizenship Processing Time Favorite for Tax Optimization Best for Frequent Luxury Travelers Best for Access to Diverse Markets
EU Member Yes Yes Yes Yes Candidate No No Possible Candidate
Schengen Area Candidate Yes Yes Yes No No No No, but visa-free travel allowed
CBI Rank 8 N/A 7 N/A 8 N/A N/A N/A
Language Greek, Turkish Greek Maltese, English Portuguese Montenegrin Arabic Thai Georgian
Other Languages English, Chinese, Russian English, French Italian, French English interest English English, Pashto, Balochi, Hindi, Persian English English, Russian
Language Requirement(Official, Citizenship) N/A Yes N/A Yes No N/A N/A Yes
Language Suggested No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes, location dependent
Residency Length Lifetime 5 years Lifetime 5 years N/A 2,5, or 10 years 5,10 or 20 years 1 year
Minimum Investment- Residency 300,000 Euros 250,000 Euros 165,00 Euros 350,000 Euros N/A 500,000 AED 600,000 THB 100,000 USD
Investment Type Real Estate Real Estate or Securities Securities Real Estate or Investmentor Job Creation N/A Real Estate, Investment, Company Formation Membership Fee Real Estate or Investment
Family Included Spouse, Parents, Children (age 25) Up to 4th generation Spouse, Children (age 26 and studying), parents, dependent siblings N/A Spouse and Children Separate Family Packages Spouse and Children (age 26) Spouse and Children (age 26)
In-Country Stay Requirement Visit once every 2 years No No 7 days annually N/A No No No
Residency Status Permanent Temporary Permanent Permanent N/A Temporary Temporary; permanent with non-immigrant visa after 3 years Temporary; permanent after 5 years
Investment Return No Possible Possible No N/A No No No
Duration of Process 2-3 months 2-3 months 6-8 months 6 months to 1 year N/A 1 month 1 month Up to 6 months
Minimum Investment- Citizenship N/A N/A N/A N/A 350,000 Euros N/A N/A 300,000 USD
Family Included N/A See residency N/A See residency Spouse, Children N/A N/A Spouse, Children (age 26)
Citizenship Status N/A 7 years residency completion or ancestry link N/A 5 years residency completion Direct N/A 10 year permanent residency completion Direct; 10year residencyprogram completion also an option
Duration of Process N/A 7 years residency N/A 6 years, including residency requirements 3 months N/A N/A Up to 6 months
National Healthcare Provided Yes No Yes, if employed Yes No No Yes, new retirement health program soon No
Official Retirement Program No, specific tax policies onpensions No, developing tax policies on x (retirement) Yes, investment program with tax benefits Yes, specific taxpolicies on all foreign income No Yes, retirement visa program Yes, retirement visa program No
Personal Income Tax 20% - 35% with 19,500€ (~21,500$) p.a. tax-free (20%-50% tax breaks may apply) 9 – 44% In-country 35% Foreign 15% 14.5 – 48% 9 or 11% None 0 – 37% 20%
Corporate Tax 12.5% 24% 35% 21% 9% 0 – 55%, at Emirate level 20% 15%
Rental Income Tax 20 – 35% 15 – 45% 0 – 35% 15% 9%, with deductions 5% N/A <1%
VAT 19%, with reductions 24%, new properties 0 – 18% 23%, standard 21% 5%, residential properties exempt 10% 18%
Real Estate Taxes Stamp Duty 0.15 – 0.2% Transfer Tax: 3% (resales)
Land Registry: 0.48–0.58% +VAT
Property Tax: 0–2%
Local Real Estate Duty (TAP): 0.025–0.035%
Property Sales: 15%
Stamp Duty, transfers 3.5% Immovable Property Tax: 0.3–0.8%
Property Purchase Tax (IMT): 0–8%
Stamp Duty: 0.4–6.7%
Transfer Tax, land or previously transferred 3% Capital Gains, sale of property: 9% Property Tax, based on usage (not ownership): 0.25–1% Land Registry Fee: 4%, split by buyer and seller N/A Property Tax: 0%
Other Tax Considerations Capital Gains, corporate: 24%
Capital Gains, personal: 15%
Inheritance and Gift Tax: 10–40%
Capital Gains, corporate 25% Capital Gains, personal: 28% Import Tax: 0 – 12%
Estimated Real Estate ROI (Rental) 7% 4% 5% 5% 4-8% 1% 4% 8-10%
Double Tax Treaties 67 57 70 52 42 90 61 56

There are a lot of factors to consider when determining which are the best golden visa programs for you, your family, and your financial goals. Some programs have a greater initial investment price while others may cost more in the long-term due to taxation policies. Another aspect to consider is whether permanent relocation is the objective or rather having more opportunities to travel.

Healthcare, retirement programs, and return on investments can also shine a light on the best golden visa programs for your particular needs and milestones in life. To help make things easier at Immigration Explorer, we have created a custom comparison chart to give you an in-depth, but easy-to-read way to compare the best golden visa programs across Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. To find out more details on the programs, for both residency and citizenship options, consult our country pages and let us help you take the next step!

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